How to Chair a Board Meeting

Our Advice for Chairing an Efficient Board Meeting

 Welcome. Please everyone, take your seats.

You’re standing at the front of the room, ready to nosedive into the fifteen agenda items scheduled for the next 2.5 hours. There’s never enough time in the day, let alone allocated for that quarterly board meeting. Nevertheless, you’re ready. Thanks to an über knack for preparation, your watch and smart phone have already been synced to the antiquated clock ticking away at the back of the room. Hell-bent on keeping everyone focused and on schedule, nothing can stop you now.

Board Chair Qualities and Attributes

Being successful at the helm of a board meeting isn’t a fate destined for just anyone. A board chair needs to possess a thorough understanding of exemplary corporate governance principles. A fruitful board chair will have and maintain a strong relationship with the CEO, becoming their go-to for advice, counsel and support. To be successful, they must have experience in the organization’s industry. Exceptional board chairs will have the vertical knowledge and experience, on top of possessing the needed social and organizational skills to run a board meeting with ease.

Contrary to some incessant advertisements, one size rarely fits all. Such a sentiment is especially illustrated when it comes to the personalities of members on any board. Board chairs need to be ready to deal with every kind of personality type; after all, board members are human. Open mindedness and humility are a couple of imperative attributes that a board chairperson must have. These attributes will allow them to hear all sides of arguments, permitting opinions to come forth respectively, and creating a collaborative environment. It will also allow the chairperson to play devil’s advocate, when necessary, to avoid any chance of group-think.

The board chair must be decisive and confident in tone and body language. They need to keep control of the meeting, without coming off as excessively demanding. An expert chairperson skillfully blends the ideas of board directors and clarifies their perspectives.

During the Meeting

Robert’s Rules of Order. We rarely think twice about Robert or his rules. We don’t think twice because, without exception, board meetings universally operate according to Robert’s Rules, which is commonly known as parliamentary procedure.  A prosperous board chair will be familiar with the basic rules of parliamentary procedure and know exactly how to look up regulations for uncommon situations.

Calling the Meeting to Order

First and foremost, the board chair will establish a quorum, which is defined in the organization’s bylaws. Simply put, a quorum is a majority vote. The board chair will count members as they arrive for a meeting and the board secretary will note whether a quorum takes place, in the meeting minutes.

If a quorum isn’t established, the board chair may do one of four things:

  • Reschedule the meeting – for a day when more members are available.
  • Adjourn the meeting.
  • Recess – put the meeting on pause, giving the members more time to return to the room.
  • Round up the members like a shepherd does his sheep – call them personally and see if you can get enough for a quorum.

Once the board chair establishes, or re-establishes a quorum, the meeting can begin – ceremoniously marked by the resonating pound of the gavel.

Opening Remarks and Minutes Approval

An excellent board chair will kick off the meeting by acknowledging the board directors and guests – which sets a respectful tone for the meeting. Opening statements are an opportune time to make any announcements, give thanks to retiring members for their service, and provide any last-minute reminders.

If applicable, the corporate secretary will read the previous board meeting’s minutes. The board chair will ask for any modifications to the minutes. If the directors have corrections, the secretary will make them. The chair will then call a vote to approve them or approve them as amended. A motion gets seconded and a vote to approve finalizes the approval of the minutes. The secretary will make note of the approval.

Reports, Orders and New Business

What’s a board meeting without those reports we know and love?

  • Treasurer’s Report – there is no official vote on this report, unless it has been audited first. The report is simply filed.
  • Officers’ Reports – the secretary may read these reports out loud or ask the directors to read them on their own. The chairperson will cover any outstanding matters that require action and calls for a motion and a second to initiate voting.
  • Executive, Standing and Special Committee Reports – These reports will be submitted, prior to the meeting and the directors are tasked with reading them, prior to the meeting. If any recommendations come out of these committees, the board chair will present the motion, and call for a vote.
  • Special Orders – these orders are specific actions, e.g. nominations and elections, that occur at certain times of the year.
  • Unfinished Business and General Orders – pertains to any outstanding agenda item that didn’t get resolved in a previous meeting, so the board chair moved it to the current meeting for further review.
  • New Business – refers to new agenda items. Board directors may introduce a new item, prior to the meeting, with approval of the board chair. The item will then be debated, amended, and put to a vote.

Announcements and Adjournment

At the end of the meeting, the board chair will open the floor for any general announcements. The board chair will then close the floor and entertain a motion to adjourn, which must be seconded and may not be amended. A majority vote will adjourn the meeting.

Closing Thoughts

So, there you have it folks. Your go-to-guide on how to successfully chair a board meeting. Feel free to browse through the rest of our blog (how about checking out The Secret to Successful CEO Succession Every Board Should Know ) for more.


Strategy Mapping & Succession Planning

Fifty years. That’s how long it has been since Japanese manufacturers introduced the world to “just-in-time” production methods. Toyota is credited as the initial birthplace of this methodology, which is aimed primarily at reducing flow times within production systems as well as response times from suppliers and customers. A huge aspect of this process is understanding production schedules and timelines and making sure that inputs, resources and parts are supplied and readily available.

One of the many responsibilities for Boards of Directors is to hire and oversee the compensation and performance of the top executive within their organization. As well, Boards are responsible for establishing the organization’s long-term strategic direction. Embracing the “just-in-time” approach and applying it to human capital management will allow Boards to anticipate what executive skills and characteristics are needed, at each stage of their strategic plans.

Ideally, Boards should be mapping their executive succession planning activities to their strategic planning responsibilities to help ensure that they have the right leadership within their strategic evolution. Like just-in-time manufacturing, proper succession planning requires organizations to proactively understand what skills they will need and when they will be needed.

All succession planning should begin with a review of strategic plans to understand what leadership skills are required at each stage. Once Boards have clarity on what will be needed, they will then be able to properly establish an inventory of:

  • What skills they have,
  • What skills can be developed, and
  • What skills should be acquired.

After Boards successfully implement a just-in-time mindset and map their succession responsibilities to their strategic planning responsibilities, they will have positioned their organizations for future success.

Global Governance Advisors (GGA) works solely for the board, in collaboration with senior management. GGA successfully provides expert, state of the art compensation and governance advice without apparent or perceived conflicts of interest. Our Executive Compensation consulting practice implements comprehensive reviews to ensure pay-for-performance linkage, successful succession planning, fulfillment of disclosure requirements and the optimum alignment of compensation to corporate strategy. We provide rigorous competitive assessments of pay levels for Chairman, Committee Chair, Committee Member and Board Director positions. These assessments include key financial metrics relative to peer groups in terms of retainer, meeting fees and equity compensation. 

Tips to Avoid a Proxy Fight

Learning from Past Mistakes to Avoid a Proxy Fight

All publicly-traded companies face the risk of a proxy fight with one or more of its current shareholders. In a nutshell, a proxy fight is a situation where two corporate factions (typically the Board/Executive Team vs. an activist shareholder or a group of company shareholders) fight for votes from remaining shareholders in order to effect change in a particular area of governance in the company.

This issue often occurs when a new slate of board members is proposed to replace a group of existing board members by an activist shareholder or group. The new slate of board members are generally individuals who are receptive to the activist shareholder’s views on how to change the company while the existing board members are often resistant to the activist shareholder’s views. Common areas of disagreement that can lead to a proxy fight include: future company strategy, executive compensation, company performance or whether a sale of the company or continuing as a stand-alone company is in the best interest of shareholders.

There are many examples of high-profile proxy fights in North America in recent years including: Proctor & Gamble, Yahoo, Dupont, CP Rail and Crescent Point Energy. However, recent research by Vinson & Elkins LLP has shown that in 2016, 83% of all proxy contests in the United States were at companies with market caps of less than $1 billion, which means that proxy fights are a risk for all size of companies in the marketplace. Even though many of these proxy fights result in unsuccessful vote outcomes for the activist shareholders, they often lead to significant change at companies. For example, Proctor & Gamble ended up appointing activist shareholder Nelson Peltz to its board even though Peltz lost the proxy fight. At Crescent Point Energy, while Cation Capital was unsuccessful in electing new board members, former CEO Scott Saxberg was forced to step down and the company indicated a renewed focus on capital allocation, cost reduction and return on capital employed. All had been promoted by Cation as part of its proxy fight. In a successful proxy fight, Bill Ackman was able to get his slate of new board members elected to the board at CP Rail in 2012, which resulted in an overhaul of management with the hiring of Hunter Harrison as CEO and a renewed focus on driving cost efficiency at the company. The resulting change was extremely beneficial to CP shareholders as its market capitalization has grown almost 300%, while significantly reducing its Operating Ratio under the new strategy and leadership.

The lesson here is not to say whether proxy fights are good or bad for shareholders, but to raise awareness that if you are a board member at a publicly-traded company you need to be aware of the risk and how to avoid getting into this difficult situation. Here are five strategies that can aid your board in avoiding a proxy fight.

Five Strategies to Help Your Board Avoid a Proxy Fight

1. Know your shareholders:

Have a deep understanding of your Top 10, 25 and 50 shareholders. Who are the most active among them? How much of your company’s shares do they own? Do they often vote their shares at your Annual General Meeting (AGM)? Do they follow the voting guidelines or research of a proxy advisory firm (e.g. ISS, Glass Lewis)? Do the shareholders have published voting guidelines on board make-up, corporate governance or executive compensation designs that they prefer? Having the answers to these questions will allow you to understand the potential concerns that shareholders might have with your company and help you address those concerns through your public disclosure or engagement activities.

2. Proactively engage with shareholders rather than react to their views

Seek a dialogue with your Top shareholders and try to engage with as many shareholders as possible either face-to-face or through active communication through e-mail or phone calls. This dialogue will allow you to communicate your Board and management’s story and share why you believe that your strategy and approach are in the best interest of the company. It also provides a vehicle for your shareholders to share their concerns, which allows you to better understand their views and potentially implement certain changes to the Board and management’s plan to address their concerns. If possible, you should try to include your CEO and/or Board Chair in these conversations, so that both the Board and management are hearing shareholder concerns. You must ensure that a consistent message is being presented by the Board and management in any of these conversations to ensure the same story is being told to all shareholders.

3. Monitor your company’s pay-for-performance linkage

Executive compensation has become a lightning rod in recent years for proxy fights when activist shareholders can point to relatively high compensation and relatively low performance over a 3 or 5-year period. It is imperative that the board monitor the relationship between pay and performance and ensure that there is general alignment between the two. While the Compensation Committee and board should be monitoring this alignment on an annual basis during committee/board meetings, another way to demonstrate alignment to shareholders is through the annual proxy circular where a company reports on the compensation for its top five executives. Compensation is required to be disclosed following a rigid format in the Summary Compensation Table, but that does not preclude a company from demonstrating executive pay in other ways using “Realized” or “Realizable” pay calculations. Inserting “Realized” or “Realizable” pay graphics into the annual proxy circular helps to illustrate that what has been paid, or is potentially owed to executives, aligns with the company’s performance even more so than what is disclosed in the Summary Compensation Table. The Compensation Committee and Board should also be monitoring the CEO’s annual performance scorecard to ensure Short-Term Incentive (bonus) payouts align with performance and do not surprise shareholders. The scorecard should also be updated on an annual basis to deal with the evolving strategy and the nature of the company’s operations.

4. Be transparent

Ensure that your company is open with shareholders and is seen as acting in a transparent manner. Often, companies can find themselves in proxy fights and situations where shareholders are unclear on the company’s strategy or why compensation has been structured in a certain way. If shareholders are unclear on the future strategy or do not understand the compensation design, they are more likely to side with the activist shareholder who has a strong vision and strategy for the company with a clear compensation design that makes sense to them.

5. Monitor your Board renewal process

A common theme in many proxy fights is that the Board has become too entrenched in their role and has not done a good enough job at challenging management’s thinking. This issue tends to stem from the tenure of current board members. The activist shareholder may perceive that certain board members lack independence because they have sat on the Board for too long. This perception may not be the case, but it does not stop the activist shareholder from using this appearance to his or her advantage. Your Board should be actively monitoring its renewal process by evaluating the diversity of skill, background, gender and experience of board members – giving rise to the following questions:

    1. Are there areas where we can strengthen our skills or promote greater diversity in views and experiences?
    2. Are there board members who are not carrying their weight?
    3. Is the company moving in a new direction that requires a different set of skills at the Board level?

Being able to communicate this renewal process with shareholders is critical and can be communicated annually through the proxy circular or through providing this information on a company’s website. It will enlighten shareholders to the rigorous process your board follows to ensure it is operating as effectively as it can.

Closing Thoughts

Proxy fights are never fun. They disrupt the company and divert the Board’s and management’s attention away from executing on the company’s strategy and more towards fighting off an activist shareholder. In many cases though, proxy fights can be avoided through better understanding of your shareholders, hearing their concerns and proactively communicating the company’s story so that you can try to deal with any issues before they get out of hand. This strategy requires the company to act transparently; while monitoring the alignment between executive pay and company performance. Annually, the company can demonstrate this transparency through disclosure of the alignment between pay and performance, the company’s compensation design and its board renewal process in the proxy circular. Learning from past mistakes can ultimately help board members weather the storm at their company and hopefully avoid the costly and disruptive nature of a proxy fight.

The Secret to Successful CEO Succession

“Tim Hortons is hiring — Canada’s No. 1 coffee chain is looking for a new leader after the abrupt departure of its CEO. The company announced Wednesday that Don Schroeder, 65, no longer serves as president and CEO after three years at the helm and two decades as an employee.” 1 [i]said in a 2015 press release.

The board’s number one responsibility is CEO succession planning, yet so many boards ignore the criticality of proactively discussing the senior leadership succession plan.  While industrial psychologist researchers have identified that some of the most successful CEO successors are those that have been hired from within,  most organizations do not have the depth of talent necessary to identify the new captain of the team.

The Case For Internal Succession

When a board is confident in the direction of the company’s business strategy and it is staffed with a suite of executive team leadership, selecting a current team member who  demonstrates the competencies and leadership capabilities  generates the greatest chance of continued success of the organization.  When a board is put to the task of selecting its next CEO, many boards in this case will evaluate one or two internal executives through a series of interviews and competency profiling tests to determine who would be best fit for taking the next CEO role.  For year’s now, HR leaders have discussed the infamous “horse race” set up by Jack Welch at General Electric. The basic truth is that few organizations are the  “General Electric of a bygone era. All of my experience led me to the conclusion that unsuccessful searches revolve around a chasm between the financial expectations and performance criteria of the final candidate and the board.

The “Secret Sauce”

This blog focuses on how boards must get the uncomfortable conversations out of the way, before starting the negotiations with the desired candidate.  We call this the “board’s CEO negotiation playbook”.  It is the secret saucethat increases the probability of closing the candidate and getting the talent you want and mitigates the risk of the wrong candidate getting the offer.

The absolute worst-case scenario for any board (and their recruiting strategy) is when your best and final job offer of compensation, benefits and perquisites isn’t “good enough” for the candidate receiving the offer.  This is not a discussion about an employee earning $100,000, rather a CEO’s executive compensation package that is in the realm of a multi-million-dollar contract with sign-on equity and bonus guarantees.  That’s right, the next leader to drive shareholder value!

  • Our observations of the many boardrooms when the CEO succession is underway is that the board, rightfully, structures an ad hoc CEO search committee and that committee works in isolation with an executive recruiter. What the executive recruiter seems to never get right is that because the paycheck for the recruiter is a function of the CEO’s compensation, the recruiter fails to get into the uncomfortable budgetary conversation  as the search begins. Boards often do not have a solid frame-of-reference on competitive pay structures for the CEO of their future.  They know only what they were paying the prior CEO, but they lack context of competitive pay levels and pay structures within the candidate pools of talent.

The Independent Compensation Advisor: Hired to Bridge the Gap

When conducting an external search, the board must hire a reputable retained executive recruiter to validate the CEO competency profile  and to help craft the CEO search strategy.  The search strategy will often identify a few industry sectors in which qualified candidates may be working.

That said, each industry sector may present a unique pay level that is materially different to the current executive pay being offered by the organization hiring the CEO.  When we work with our clients, we conduct a compensation review for each of the sectors of interest.  The compensation review would cover not only active CEO’s within the industry, but  other key executive roles  – to help understand the various pay levels by industry and by executive.  This review enables the board to understand how competitive their current compensation/incentive plan was for the former CEO.  In some cases, the compensation sector review may identify that, within the search strategy, some industries pay materially higher than the former CEO was compensated, or vice versa.  The compensation review also identifies compensation structure trends by industry and can help paint the picture of what is “market normal” in the broader sea of executive talent.

After the compensation review is completed, it is critical to sit down with the Board and articulate the “realistic” budget for the new CEO. The market data is very helpful in validating the reality of the compensation and incentive levels for CEO candidates. The peer compensation data provides an understanding of the market spectrum the viable candidate may consider.  Are they at the top end of the market range or the bottom?  After the broader compensation “bookended” budget is identified by the compensation review, the next layer is to understand the current governance trends around the “deal breakers”.  Here is where the independent advisor can really show their courage and brevity in advising the board.

The negotiation deal breakers are the one-time requests made by the candidate.  These include: buying out the executive’s forfeited equity he or she may lose when resigning at his/her company, guaranteed bonus period, crediting years of pension service in the company’s pension plan, paying for excessive perquisites etc.  The board’s advisor will have a strong understanding of the capital market appetite for recruiting. However, the board often ignores these critical conversations up front, which is one of the leading causes for failing to close the desired CEO candidate.  For the board members reading this blog, we challenge you to ask some of your board colleagues to discuss how much are they willing to offer in a sign-on situation. Our experience – two very different perspectives.

The Negotiation Rule Book

Once the compensation review is presented, the bookended CEO compensation budget is identified and the board is aware of the market appetite on one-time sign-on agreements; the board needs to come to a unanimous view of what the board will ultimately be willing to offer to close the right candidate.  This conversation is most helpful when done before the search is started and best when the recruiter is not present, to help avoid any unnecessary conflict of interest.  After the board comes to an agreement on the go/no-go recruitment offerings, then the negotiation rule book can be formulated and presented to the recruiter.

The recruiter will benefit from understanding the totality of the “rules of the search”.  The recruiter is your front-line representative that is doing the hard work to find the candidate.  According to Jay Rosenzweig, founder and CEO of Rosenzweig & Company, the world’s leading boutique executive recruitment firm, “a key component in structuring a successful search is establishing, in advance, realistic compensation parameters. This allows the recruiter to better target the most relevant candidates, which typically saves time and produces more satisfying results for all parties. As with so many things, strong up-front research and a common understanding of objectives can make or break an executive recruitment project.”  When the recruiter understands the entire truth of the budget, they will temper the candidates’ expectations early in the recruitment process.  When a recruiter does not fully understand the budget, or the one-time requests that might be offside, the recruiter may land in uncomfortable situations where they promise the world, but can only deliver an island.  The negotiation rule book also aids in how the recruiter uses their network throughout the search. The recruiter can pivot from potential candidates that will simply be “too expensive” for the role and can convert them into a connector for referrals.  This is gold for the company and the recruiter.

Board of Directors REMINDER! – When you find yourself in the position of needing to search for your next CEO – invite your independent advisor into the process early and use them as a partner to develop the negotiation rule book that is right for your organization.

Board Meetings: Worst Practices

Factors that Result in an Ineffective Meeting

Ineffective Board and Committee meetings are one of the key factors that inhibit a board from operating most efficiently and helps drive better decision-making. As an advisor to boards, I have participated in hundreds of meetings over the years and have observed both efficient and inefficiently run meetings. Ultimately, the meetings that ran most inefficiently are distracted by trivial issues that delay decision-making.

Four Key Factors That Lead to Ineffective Board or Committee Meeting

1. Poor Time Management

2. Lack of Member Participation

3. Insufficient Time to Review Materials

4. Unprepared Board/Committee Members

Poor Time Management

This occurs in situations where the key issues to be discussed are side-tracked by trivial or unrelated issues that would be better discussed outside of the scheduled meeting time. It also can happen when an insufficient amount of time is allocated to discuss important issues. This means that decisions are either rushed or are deferred until future meetings, which can delay the organization’s overall agenda.

Lack of  Member Participation

This occurs in situations where one to two members of the Board/Committee dominate the conversation while other members are either unable to speak or are less prepared and therefore have little to add to the conversation. This means that the full breadth of views on an issue may not be discussed and considered, which can lead to less effective decision-making. It also can lead certain Board/Committee members, who are unable to participate, to question their relevance and value that they are bringing to the discussion.

Insufficient Time to Review Materials

This occurs in situations where meeting agendas and supporting materials are sent out only one to two days in advance of a meeting. Not only does this provide Board/Committee members with very little time to review materials before the meeting, but it also provides less time to adjust the meeting agenda and associated timelines if it is felt that too little time has been allocated to discuss certain topics.

Unprepared Board/Committee Members

This factor can be influenced by some of the aforementioned issues, but ultimately leads to less effective meetings as Board/Committee members are not able to effectively discuss the important issues or may take things sideways by discussing issues that were already addressed in the meeting materials. If members are not prepared, ineffective decision-making is the result, which ultimately is not in the best interest of the organization.

Effective Meetings Lead to Higher Performance

Ensuring effective meetings of the boards and its committees is key in making sure that your board is performing at a high level. If you find your Board/Committee meetings are less effective, look for signs of this through the factors listed above and read: Creating Board Meetings – Best Practices. By looking at what works best in creating effective meetings, you can improve your board’s overall effectiveness which should lead to better decision-making and positive results for your organization.

Best Practices for Board Meetings

Advice for Efficient and Effective Meetings

Effective Board and Committee meetings are one of the key factors that allow a board from operating most efficiently and helps drive better decision-making. As an advisor to boards, I have participated in hundreds of meetings over the years and have observed both efficient and inefficiently run meetings. Ultimately, the meetings that ran most efficiently allowed the Board/Committee to move forward with its agenda and not be distracted by trivial issues that delay decision-making.

Six Actions to Ensure an Efficient Meeting

1. Development of a clear meeting agenda.

2. Provide enough notice and appropriate materials for members to be prepared.

3. Keep the meeting on time and on topic.

4. Ensure each member is able to voice their views and opinions.

5. Ensure that results are accomplished and/or action items identified.

6.  Include some social interaction and networking time.

Development of a clear meeting agenda

This includes identifying the topic and issues to be discussed during the meeting, so there is no confusion on the purpose of the meeting. The agenda should also include any actions that are required to be taken by the Board/Committee as part of the meeting (i.e. is a topic “for information only” or “does it require a decision”). Identifying who will lead the discussion of each topic must be added to each agenda item. Lastly, each agenda item should have an associated timing, provided in the agenda, so that Board/Committee members have a sense of the timing and importance of the issues to be discussed.

Provide enough notice and appropriate materials for members to be prepared

As a best practice, meeting materials and the agenda should be sent out a minimum of one week before the associated meeting to provide members with sufficient time to review the materials. Some of the boards I have worked with will even send materials out two weeks beforehand and have a pre-meeting internally to discuss materials before the actual meeting date.

Keep the meeting on time and on topic

While this task is one that ultimately is the responsibility of the Board/Committee Chair, it is important that the timelines provided in the agenda are followed. Meetings should not stray too far outside of their purpose. As an extreme example, if your Audit Committee is discussing the organization’s budget, the discussion should not stray into discussing a specific personnel issue around the CEO’s performance or compensation which are unrelated to the topic at hand. If you find your meetings starting to stray off topic, acknowledge the member’s concern as being important but that it be taken off-line and discussed at a later time. This ensures that your meeting stays on schedule and respects all Board/Committee member’s time.

Ensure each member is able to voice their views and opinions

While this task largely falls on the Board/Committee Chair, it is important that all members feel their opinions matter and are provided sufficient time to discuss their views. If you find one to two members dominating the conversation, make sure that once they have finished their point that you then ask other members, who have not had the chance to speak, to weigh in on the topic and provide their perspective. This helps ensure that all members feel like they are providing value to the Board/Committee and that a comprehensive discussion of all potential views can be had amongst the group.

Ensure that results are accomplished and/or action items identified

It is important that any actions required of the Board/Committee relating to the agenda are generally accomplished, as part of the meeting. This means bringing items to a close after an appropriate discussion has been had to ensure things are kept on track. If it is felt that more time is needed to discuss a specific issue, a follow-up action item should be identified, at the very least, so the Board/Committee has specific direction on what the next steps are to come to a resolution on a specific issue.

Include some social interaction and networking time

It is important that you allow Board/Committee members to have some time outside of the scheduled agenda to interact and network amongst each other. This helps to create a positive atmosphere and culture amongst the Board/Committee which will help ensure that all members feel respected and trust can be built. Many boards will schedule Board dinners the night before/after a Board meeting for all members to interact. This can also be done through scheduling team-building experiences/exercises either between meetings or at strategic off-sites where the Board and management are discussing organizational strategy.

Effective Meetings = Positive Results

Ensuring effective meetings of the boards and its committees is key in making sure that your board is performing at a high level. Effective meetings also lead to an appropriate discussion of all relevant issues and opinions amongst its members before actions are taken. If you find your Board/Committee meetings are less effective, look for signs of this through the factors listed above and ask questions about how you and your board can improve. By looking at what works best in creating effective meetings, you can improve your board’s overall effectiveness which should lead to better decision-making and positive results for your organization.